Gilan province lies along the Caspian Sea, just west of the province of Mazandaran,
east of the province of Ardabil, north of the provinces of Zanjan and
Qazvin. The northern part of the province is part of territory of South
(Iranian) Talysh. At the center of the province is the main city of
Rasht. Other towns in the province include Astara,
Astaneh-e-Ashrafiyyeh, Fuman, Lahijan, Langrud, Masouleh, Manjil,
Rudbar,Roudsar, Shaft, Talesh, and Soumahe Sara.
Gilan province consists of 16 counties of Amlesh, Astaneh-e-
Ashrafiyyeh, Astara, Bandar Anzali, Fuman, Lahijan, Langrud, Massal,
Rasht, Rezvanshahr, Roodbar, Shaft, Siahkal, Soumahe Sara and Talesh.
Gilan province covers an area of 14711 Km2 and posses 0.9 percent of
the country area. Gilan is considered as the smallest province of the
country after the other province of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad.
Gileki is spoken by more than 3 million people. The vast majority of the speakers live in the
Gilan Province of Iran. Gileki belongs to the northwestern branch of
the Iranian languages. The Iranian languages form a top-level
constituent of the Indo-European language family. It is closely related
to Mazanderani and is subdivided into two main dialects: Bie-pas and
Bie-pish. Bie-pas dialect is mainly spoken in west of Sepidrud including
Rasht and Fuman while Bie-pish dialect belongs to eastern part of Gilan
including Lahijan and Langrud.
The main harbor port of the province is Bandar-e Anzali (previously Bandar-e Pahlavi).
Gilan province central coordination locates in 37.2774°N 49.5890°E.
Gilan has a humid temperate climate with plenty of
annual rainfall. The city Rasht which is the center of the province is
well-known globally as the "City of Silver Rains" and also known as the
"City of Rain" around Iran. The Alborz range provides further diversity
to the land in addition to the Caspian coasts.
The amount of humidity is truly high in the warm seasons of the year
in Guilan, however the coastlines are much cooler and pleasant at the
same time and thousands of domestic and foreign tourists come to the
seashore for swimming and camping.
Despite of the abundant humidity, Gilan is known for its moderate, mild and Mediterranean-like climate.
Large parts of the province are mountainous, green and forested. The coastal plain along the Caspian Sea is similar to that of Mazandaran, mainly used for rice paddies.
In May 1990 large parts of the province were destroyed by a huge earthquake, in which about 45,000 people died.